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Source Reduction by European Testing Schedules (SRETS)


SRETS (Source Reduction by European Testing Schedules) was supported by the EC (European Commission) Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T). Subordinated to Contract No SMT4-CT95-2005, SRETS was project No 2109. Co-ordinator of the SRETS project was Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Braunmiller, Fraunhofer ICT, Pfinztal, Germany. The report was published in 1999 and comprises 138 pages.

The aim of the SRETS project was to gather data from a number of sources and a wide range of packed products being transported throughout Europe. The collected data formed the basis for setting up state-of-the-art in Europe for test methods and test schedules of packages and products. The derived severities formed the basis for a CEN standard.

It was the aim of the SRETS project to complete the existing standards concerning the testing of package through the "random vibration" test. Furthermore should a test schedule be made.

The aims of the project were:

  • To examine the correlation between damages and products, and to classify the products by means of sensitiveness.
  • To make a database with measured data.
  • To define mechanic-dynamic transporting tests and to verify these tests.
  • To assemble the results in a test schedule
  • To make suggestions for transportation standard


1 Introduction

2 Technical Approach and Results

   2.1 Opinion Poll of European Testing Houses and Manufacturers by a

      2.1.1 Procedure

      2.1.2 The structure of the questionnaire

      2.1.3 The results of the questionnaire

   2.2 Identification of damage inducing mechanisms

      2.2.1 Objective

      2.2.2 General results
 Causes of damage
 Corrugated material due to impacts and vibration during
 Corrosion-sensitive products exposed to moisture

      2.2.3 Summary and discussion

   2.3 Measurements and Data

      2.3.1 Objective

      2.3.2 Performance of the measurements
 Covert measurements
 Overt measurements
 Comparison of data sets
 Literature Data

      2.3.3 Methodological Strategies
 Data evaluation procedures

   Validation of data

   Selection of Data

   Non stationary data

   Identification of events

   Identification and treatment of shocks

   Identification and treatment of periodic parts
 Analysis Procedures

   Values and Counting

   Time domain methods

   Frequency domain methods

      2.3.4 Analysed data
 Evaluation of Discrete Measured Data

   Verification of Covert Data

   Relationship Between Data From Two Capture Options

 Evaluation of Simulated Transport Measurements

   Relationship Between Vibration and Shock

   Spectral Content of Vibrations

   Spread of Vibration Amplitudes

   Shock Amplitudes

   Shock Occurrence Rates

   Relationship Between Axes, vehicle types and roads

      2.3.5 Conclusions and recommendations

   2.4 Test Derivation

      2.4.1 Objective

      2.4.2 Results
 Test spectra

   Grms method

   APD method

   Conventional PSD approach

   FDS method
 Shock profiles

   FDS method

   Statistical approach to derive shock profiles

      2.4.3 Proposed test schedules
 Known transport conditions
 Unknown transport conditions

      2.4.4 Conclusions and recommendations

   2.5 Field and Lab Tests

      2.5.1 Objective

      2.5.2 Effect of practical testing limitations

      2.5.3 Laboratory Tests

   Conventional PSD approach

   grms method

   2.6 Proposed Methods

      2.6.1 Evaluation of the test schedules
 The conventional PSD approach
 The GRMS method
 The APD method
 The FDS method
 The shock testing

      2.6.2 Discussion of the results

      2.6.3 Conclusions and recommendations

3 Databases

   3.1 Measured Data

   3.2 Analysed Data

4 Project Summary

   4.1 Tasks and aim of the project

   4.2 Results

      4.2.1 Transportation damages

      4.2.2 Data acquisition and data analysis

      4.2.3 Test spectra diversion

      4.2.4 Verification of the test spectra

      4.2.5 Suggested test spectras

5 Literature and references

6 Annex 1: Literature Data

7 Annex 2: Test Method on Random Vibration Test

8 Annex 3: Test Schedules

CEEES is a confederation of the environmental engineering societies of

the United Kingdom (SEE),
France (ASTE),
Germany (GUS),
Sweden (SEES),
Switzerland (SSEE),
Finland (KOTEL),
Belgium (BSMEE),
the Netherlands (PLOT),
Italy (AITPA),
Czech Republic (NACEI)
Austria (ÖGUS)
Portugal (SOPSAR)