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Source Reduction by European Testing Schedules (SRETS)


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SRETS (Source Reduction by European Testing Schedules) was supported by the EC (European Commission) Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T). Subordinated to Contract No SMT4-CT95-2005, SRETS was project No 2109. Co-ordinator of the SRETS project was Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Braunmiller, Fraunhofer ICT, Pfinztal, Germany. The report was published in 1999 and comprises 138 pages.

The aim of the SRETS project was to gather data from a number of sources and a wide range of packed products being transported throughout Europe. The collected data formed the basis for setting up state-of-the-art in Europe for test methods and test schedules of packages and products. The derived severities formed the basis for a CEN standard.

It was the aim of the SRETS project to complete the existing standards concerning the testing of package through the "random vibration" test. Furthermore should a test schedule be made.

The aims of the project were:

  • To examine the correlation between damages and products, and to classify the products by means of sensitiveness.
  • To make a database with measured data.
  • To define mechanic-dynamic transporting tests and to verify these tests.
  • To assemble the results in a test schedule
  • To make suggestions for transportation standard

Contents

1 Introduction

2 Technical Approach and Results

   2.1 Opinion Poll of European Testing Houses and Manufacturers by a
         Questionnaire

      2.1.1 Procedure

      2.1.2 The structure of the questionnaire

      2.1.3 The results of the questionnaire

   2.2 Identification of damage inducing mechanisms

      2.2.1 Objective

      2.2.2 General results

         2.2.2.1 Introduction

         2.2.2.2 Causes of damage

         2.2.2.3 Corrugated material due to impacts and vibration during
                     shipment

         2.2.2.4 Corrosion-sensitive products exposed to moisture

      2.2.3 Summary and discussion

   2.3 Measurements and Data

      2.3.1 Objective

      2.3.2 Performance of the measurements

         2.3.2.1 Method

         2.3.2.2 Covert measurements

         2.3.2.3 Overt measurements

         2.3.2.4 Comparison of data sets

         2.3.2.5 Literature Data

      2.3.3 Methodological Strategies

         2.3.3.1 Data evaluation procedures

            2.3.3.1.1 Validation of data

            2.3.3.1.2 Selection of Data

            2.3.3.1.3 Non stationary data

            2.3.3.1.4 Identification of events

            2.3.3.1.5 Identification and treatment of shocks

            2.3.3.1.6 Identification and treatment of periodic parts

         2.3.3.2 Analysis Procedures

            2.3.3.2.1 Values and Counting

            2.3.3.2.2 Time domain methods

            2.3.3.2.3 Frequency domain methods

      2.3.4 Analysed data

         2.3.4.1 Evaluation of Discrete Measured Data

            2.3.4.1.1 Verification of Covert Data

            2.3.4.1.2 Relationship Between Data From Two Capture Options

            2.3.4.1.3 Results

         2.3.4.2 Evaluation of Simulated Transport Measurements

            2.3.4.2.1 Relationship Between Vibration and Shock

            2.3.4.2.2 Spectral Content of Vibrations

            2.3.4.2.3 Spread of Vibration Amplitudes

            2.3.4.2.4 Shock Amplitudes

            2.3.4.2.5 Shock Occurrence Rates

            2.3.4.2.6 Relationship Between Axes, vehicle types and roads

      2.3.5 Conclusions and recommendations

   2.4 Test Derivation

      2.4.1 Objective

      2.4.2 Results

         2.4.2.1 Test spectra

            2.4.2.1.1 Grms method

            2.4.2.1.2 APD method

            2.4.2.1.3 Conventional PSD approach

            2.4.2.1.4 FDS method

         2.4.2.2 Shock profiles

            2.4.2.2.1 FDS method

            2.4.2.2.2 Statistical approach to derive shock profiles

      2.4.3 Proposed test schedules

         2.4.3.1 Known transport conditions

         2.4.3.2 Unknown transport conditions

      2.4.4 Conclusions and recommendations

   2.5 Field and Lab Tests

      2.5.1 Objective

      2.5.2 Effect of practical testing limitations

      2.5.3 Laboratory Tests

         2.5.3.1 Results

            2.5.3.1.1 Conventional PSD approach

            2.5.3.1.2 grms method

   2.6 Proposed Methods

      2.6.1 Evaluation of the test schedules

         2.6.1.1 The conventional PSD approach

         2.6.1.2 The GRMS method

         2.6.1.3 The APD method

         2.6.1.4 The FDS method

         2.6.1.5 The shock testing

      2.6.2 Discussion of the results

      2.6.3 Conclusions and recommendations

3 Databases

   3.1 Measured Data

   3.2 Analysed Data

4 Project Summary

   4.1 Tasks and aim of the project

   4.2 Results

      4.2.1 Transportation damages

      4.2.2 Data acquisition and data analysis

      4.2.3 Test spectra diversion

      4.2.4 Verification of the test spectra

      4.2.5 Suggested test spectras

5 Literature and references

6 Annex 1: Literature Data

7 Annex 2: Test Method on Random Vibration Test

8 Annex 3: Test Schedules

CEEES is a confederation of the environmental engineering societies of

the United Kingdom (SEE),
France (ASTE),
Germany (GUS),
Sweden (SEES),
Switzerland (SSEE),
Finland (KOTEL),
Belgium (BSMEE),
the Netherlands (PLOT),
Italy (AITPA),
Czech Republic (NACEI)
Austria (ÖGUS)
&
Portugal (SOPSAR)